Bhutan lies in the eastern Himalaya between 26 0 40’ N and 28 0 20′ N latitudes and880 45’ E and 920 7’ E longitudes. It is hemmed in between Tibet (China) in the north and the India in the south.

Within 145 kilometer distance from north to south, elevation rises from 150m above sea level near the subtropical foothills bordering India to 8000m near Tibet.

Four major river system: the Drangme Chhu; the Punatsang Chhu, the Wang Chhu; and the Amo Chhu, drains the country flowing south  towards Brahmaputra in India. These river system are divided by mountain ranges running from north to south.

Diverse climatic region dictated by mountainous nature of the country  resulted in diverse flora and fauna. Furthermore the traditional concept of respect for nature served to keep the natural vegetation cover protected. The 70 percent of the country is still covered with the forest and there are 7 designated national parks.

These factors have jointly contributed to Bhutan being  identified as a global biodiversity hotspot and counted among the 234 globally outstanding eco-regions of the world in a comprehensive analysis of global biodiversity undertaken by the World Wildlife Fund (1995-1997).


Bhutan has record of 5603 species of plant including 576 variety of wild orchids, 46 rhododendrons and over 300 medicinal plants used in formulation of the indigenous medicines. Different species of bamboos are used for various purpose like basket weaving, thatch roofing, flooring, utensils and for recreational sports like archery and musical instruments.


Many rare and endangered species of wild animals  like  Royal Bengal Tiger, Snow leopard, Golden Languor, Red Panda and Takin, the national animal thrives in the country.

Bhutan also provides conducive habitat for seriously endangered bird, white bellied heron and serve as winter roosting ground for blacked necked crane.

Agro-ecological zone Altitude m. Temperature 0C Rainfall
Max Min Mean
Alpine >3500 12.0 -1.0 5.5 <650
Cool temperate 2500-3500 22.0 1.0 10 650-850
Warm Temperate 1800-2500 26.0 1.0 13 650-850
Dry Sub-tropical 1200-1800 29.0 3.0 17 850-1200
Humid Sub-tropical 600-1200 33.0 5.0 20 1200-1500
Wet Sub-Tropical 150-600 35.0 12.0 24 2500-5500
Source: Dorji, 1995

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